Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be important signal molecules that are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as in growth regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ROS act as a growth regulator, as well as how ROS-dependent growth regulation relates to its roles in stress responses, are not well understood. We performed a time-course microarray analysis of Arabidopsis root tips upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide, which we named “ROS-map.” Using the ROS-map, we identified an MYB transcription factor, MYB30, which showed a strong response to ROS treatment and is the key regulator of a gene network that leads to the hydrogen peroxide-dependent inhibition of root cell elongation. Intriguingly, this network contained multiple genes involved in very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) transport. Finally, we showed that MYB30 is necessary for root growth regulation during defense responses, thus providing a molecular link between these two ROS-associated processes.