Translational Landscape of a C4 plant, Sorghum bicolor, under Normal and Sulfur Deficient Conditions.

Naoyuki Sotta, Yukako Chiba, Haruka Aoyama, Seidai Takamatsu, Takamasa Suzuki, Kyoko Miwa, Yui Yamashita, Satoshi Naito, Toru Fujiwara

Recent accumulation of genomic and transcriptomic information has facilitated genetic studies. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that translation is an important regulatory step, and the transcriptome does not necessarily reflect the profile of functional protein production. Deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments (ribosome profiling, or Ribo-seq) has enabled genome-wide analysis of translation. Sorghum is a C4 cereal important not only as food, but also as forage and a bioenergy resource. Its resistance to harsh environments has made it an agriculturally important research subject. Yet genome-wide translational profiles in sorghum are still missing. In this study, we took advantage of Ribo-seq and identified actively translated reading frames throughout the genome. We detected translation of 4,843 main open reading frames (ORFs) annotated in the sorghum reference genome version 3.1 and revealed a number of unannotated translational events. A comparison of the transcriptome and translatome between sorghums grown under normal and sulfur-deficient conditions revealed that gene expression is modulated independently at transcript and translation levels. Our study revealed the translational landscape of sorghum’s response to sulfur and provides datasets that could serve as a fundamental resource to extend genetic research on sorghum, including studies on translational regulation.